The process of ion exchange helps to precipitate calcium and magnesium as hydroxides or carbonates. As we mentioned earlier, the mineral tank contains the beads which are negatively charged.
In contrast, calcium and magnesium are positively charged. While sodium is also positively charged, the charge is not as strong as that of calcium and magnesium. Brines solution is usually flushed into the tank containing sodium concentrated sodium and calcium. The sodium ions replace calcium and magnesium ions from the beads. Basically, hard water enters the mineral tank.
As a result, calcium and magnesium replace sodium ions from the beads. As sodium ions get into the water, the beads concentrated with calcium and magnesium are subjected to a three face regenerating cycle.
The first phases are referred to as the backwash phase. As the name suggests, it reverses the flow of water in order to eliminate dirt from the tank. The second phase is called the exchange phase. Here the saturated sodium salt solution is eliminated from the brine tank and taken to the mineral tank.
The sodium again recollects in the beads, flushing away calcium and magnesium down the drain. The last phase involves rinsing the tank with water. A repeat of the process takes place. The salts in hard water are attracted once again to the beads. Whenever the bead is concentrated with minerals, the regeneration is initiated by the control valve.